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COVID-19 Vaccines Competitive Landscape –Latest October 2020

COVID-19 Competitive landscape October 2020

The world needs an efficient, rapid and reliable evaluation of many candidate COVID-19 vaccines. There is a danger that political and economic pressures for a rapid introduction of a COVID-19 vaccine could lead to a widespread spread of a vaccine that is actually only weakly effective (eg, reducing the incidence of COVID-19 by only 10-20%), possibly due to a deceptively promising outcome of an underpowered clinical trial.

WHO recommends that successful vaccines should show an estimated risk reduction of at least half, with enough accuracy to conclude that the true efficacy of the vaccine is greater than 30%. A vaccine with a 50% efficacy could significantly reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in vaccinated individuals and could provide useful herd immunity. So while an efficacy of far more than 50% would be better, an efficacy of around 50% would represent substantial progress.

42 Vaccines in clinical evaluation for COVID-19

COVID-19 Vaccine developer/manufacturer Vaccine platform Type of candidate vaccine Number of doses Timing of doses Route of Administration Highest Phase Trials (Highest Phase)
Sinovac Inactivated Inactivated 2 0,  14 days IM Phase 3 NCT04456595 669/UN6.KEP/EC/2020
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm Inactivated Inactivated 2 0,21 days IM Phase 3 ChiCTR2000034780
Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm Inactivated Inactivated 2 0,21 days IM Phase 3 ChiCTR2000034780 NCT04560881
University of Oxford/AstraZeneca Non-Replicating Viral Vector ChAdOx1-S 1   IM Phase 3 ISRCTN89951424 NCT04516746 NCT04540393 CTRI/2020/08/027170
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adenovirus Type 5 Vector 1   IM Phase 3 NCT04526990 NCT04540419
Gamaleya Research Institute Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adeno-based (rAd26-S+rAd5-S) 2 0,21 days IM Phase 3 NCT04530396 NCT04564716
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad26COVS1 2 0, 56 days IM Phase 3 NCT04505722
Novavax Protein Subunit Full length recombinant SARS CoV-2 glycoprotein nanoparticle
vaccine adjuvanted with Matrix M
2 0, 21 days IM Phase 3 2020-004123-16
Moderna/NIAID RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA 2 0,  28 days IM Phase 3 NCT04470427
BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer RNA 3 LNP-mRNAs 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 3 NCT04368728
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical/Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Protein Subunit Adjuvanted recombinant protein (RBD-Dimer) 2 or 3 0,28    or    0,28,56
days
IM Phase 2 NCT04466085
Curevac RNA mRNA 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 2 NCT04515147
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Inactivated Inactivated 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04470609
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan Inactivated Inactivated 2 0, 21 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04530357
Inovio Pharmaceuticals/ International Vaccine Institute DNA DNA plasmid vaccine with electroporation 2 0, 28 days ID Phase 1/2 NCT04447781 NCT04336410
Osaka University/ AnGes/ Takara Bio DNA DNA plasmid vaccine + Adjuvant 2 0, 14 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04463472 NCT04527081
Cadila Healthcare Limited DNA DNA plasmid vaccine 3 0, 28, 56 days ID Phase 1/2 CTRI/2020/07/026352
Genexine Consortium DNA DNA Vaccine (GX-19) 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04445389
Bharat Biotech Inactivated Whole-Virion Inactivated 2 0, 14 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04471519 CTRI/2020/09/027674
Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc Protein Subunit RBD-based 2 0, 21 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04473690
Sanofi Pasteur/GSK Protein Subunit S protein (baculovirus production) 2 0, 21 days IM Phase 1/2 NCT04537208
Arcturus/Duke-NUS RNA mRNA     IM Phase 1/2 NCT04480957
SpyBiotech/Serum Institute of India VLP RBD-HBsAg VLPs 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1/2 ACTRN12620000817943
Beijing Minhai Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Inactivated Inactivated 1, 2 or 3   IM Phase 1 ChiCTR2000038804
ReiThera/LEUKOCARE/Univercells Non-Replicating Viral Vector Replication defective Simian Adenovirus (GRAd) encoding S 1   IM Phase 1 NCT04528641
Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, PLA of China Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad5-nCoV 2 0, 28 days IM/mucosal Phase 1 NCT04552366
Vaxart Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad5 adjuvanted Oral Vaccine platform 2 0, 28 days Oral Phase 1 NCT04563702
Ludwig-Maximilians – University of Munich Non-Replicating Viral Vector MVA-SARS-2-S 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 NCT04569383
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax Protein Subunit Native like Trimeric subunit Spike Protein vaccine 2 0, 21 days IM Phase 1 NCT04405908
Vaxine Pty Ltd/Medytox Protein Subunit Recombinant spike protein with
Advax™ adjuvant
1   IM Phase 1 NCT04453852
University of Queensland/CSL/Seqirus Protein Subunit Molecular clamp stabilized Spike protein with MF59 adjuvant 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 ACTRN12620000674932p ISRCTN51232965
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation/NIAID/Dynavax Protein Subunit S-2P protein + CpG 1018 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 NCT04487210
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, Cuba Protein Subunit RBD + Adjuvant 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 IFV/COR/04
FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo Protein Subunit Peptide 2 0, 21 days IM Phase 1 NCT04527575
West China Hospital, Sichuan University Protein Subunit RBD (baculovirus production expressed in Sf9 cells) 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 ChiCTR2000037518
University Hospital Tuebingen Protein Subunit SARS-CoV-2 HLA-DR peptides 1   SC Phase 1 NCT04546841
COVAXX Protein Subunit S1-RBD-protein 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 NCT04545749
Institute Pasteur/Themis/Univ. of Pittsburg CVR/Merck Sharp & Dohme Replicating Viral Vector Measles-vector based 1 or 2 0, 28 days IM Phase 1 NCT04497298
Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy/ Xiamen University Replicating Viral Vector Intranasal flu-based-RBD 1   IM Phase 1 ChiCTR2000037782
Imperial College London RNA LNP-nCoVsaRNA 2   IM Phase 1 ISRCTN17072692
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences/Walvax Biotech. RNA mRNA 2 0, 14   or  0, 28
days
IM Phase 1 ChiCTR2000034112
Medicago Inc. VLP Plant-derived VLP adjuvanted with GSK or Dynavax adjs. 2 0, 21 days IM Phase 1 NCT04450004

151 Vaccines in pre-clinical evaluation for COVID-19

Platform Type of candidate vaccine Developer Coronavirus target Same platform for non-Coronavirus candidates
DNA Plasmid DNA, nanostructured RBD National institute of Chemistry, Slovenia SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA, engineered vaccine inserts compatible
with multiple delivery systems
DIOSynVax Ltd / University of Cambridge SARS-CoV-2 and
Sarbeco-CoV
 
DNA DNA vaccine Ege University SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA plasmid vaccine RBD&N Scancell/University of Nottingham/ Nottingham Trent University SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA plasmid vaccine S,S1,S2,RBD &N National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA with electroporation Karolinska Institute / Cobra Biologics
(OPENCORONA Project)
SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA with electroporation Chula Vaccine Research Center SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA Takis/Applied DNA Sciences/Evvivax SARS-CoV2  
DNA Plasmid DNA, Needle-Free Delivery Immunomic Therapeutics, Inc./EpiVax, Inc./PharmaJet SARS-CoV2 SARS
DNA DNA vaccine BioNet Asia SARS-CoV2  
DNA msDNA vaccine Mediphage Bioceuticals/University of Waterloo SARS-CoV2  
DNA DNA vaccine Entos Pharmaceuticals SARS-CoV2  
DNA bacTRL-Spike Symvivo SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) +
CpG 1018
Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC; Vietnam) / Dynavax
/ PATH
SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) +
CpG 1018
Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO; Thailand) / Dynavax / PATH SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) +
CpG 1018
Institute Butantan (Brazil) / Dynavax / PATH SARS-CoV-2  
Inactivated Inactivated + alum KM Biologics SARS-CoV2 JE, Zika
Inactivated Inactivated Selcuk University SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Inactivated Erciyes University SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Inactivated whole virus National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Inactivated   SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated TBD Osaka University/ BIKEN/ NIBIOHN SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Inactivated + CpG 1018 Sinovac/Dynavax SARS-CoV2  
Inactivated Inactivated + CpG 1018 Valneva/Dynavax SARS-CoV2  
Live Attenuated Virus Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University / Acıbadem Labmed Health Services
A.S.
SARS-CoV2  
Live Attenuated Virus Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines Codagenix/Serum Institute of India SARS-CoV2 HAV, InfA, ZIKV, FMD, SIV, RSV, DENV
Live Attenuated Virus Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines Indian Immunologicals Ltd/Griffith University SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Sendai virus vector ID Pharma SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adenovirus-based Ankara University SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adeno-associated virus vector (AAVCOVID) Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Massachusetts General Hospital/AveXis SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector MVA encoded VLP GeoVax/BravoVax SARS-CoV2 LASV, EBOV, MARV, HIV
Non-replicating viral vector MVA-S encoded DZIF – German Center for Infection Research/IDT Biologika GmbH SARS-CoV2 Many
Non-replicating viral vector MVA-S IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Spain SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector adenovirus-based NasoVAX expressing
SARS2-CoV spike protein
Altimmune SARS-CoV2 influenza
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adeno5-based Erciyes University SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector 2nd Gen E2b- Ad5 Spike, RBD, Nucleocapsid
Subcutaneous&Oral
ImmunityBio, Inc. & NantKwest, Inc. SARS-CoV2 flu, Chik, Zika, EBOV, LASV,
HIV/SIV,Cancer
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad5 S (GREVAX™ platform) Greffex SARS-CoV2 MERS
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Oral Ad5 S Stabilitech Biopharma Ltd SARS-CoV2 Zika, VZV, HSV-2 and Norovirus
Non-Replicating Viral Vector adenovirus-based  +  HLA-matched peptides Valo Therapeutics Ltd Pan-Corona  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector   Vaxart SARS-CoV2 InfA, CHIKV, LASV, NORV; EBOV, RVF, HBV, VEE
Non-Replicating Viral Vector MVA expressing structural proteins Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain SARS-CoV2 Multiple candidates
Non-Replicating Viral Vector parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based vaccine
expressing the spike protein
University of Georgia/University of Iowa SARS-CoV2 MERS
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Recombinant deactivated rabies virus
containing S1
Bharat Biotech/Thomas Jefferson University SARS-CoV2 HeV, NiV, EBOV, LASSA, CCHFV, MERS
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Influenza A H1N1 vector National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2  
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Newcastle disease virus expressing S Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit RBD protein delivered in mannose-
conjugated chitosan nanoparticle
Ohio State University / Kazakh National Agrarian University SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant spike protein with Essai O/W
1849101 adjuvant
Kazakh National Agrarian University SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Peptides Neo7Logic SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant spike protein with Essai O/W
1849101 adjuvant
Kazakh National Agrarian University, Kazakhstan / National Scientific
Center for Especially Dangerous Infections
SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit RBD protein (baculovirus production) + FAR-
Squalene adjuvant
Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC) / Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)
SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit RBD-protein Mynvax SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Peptide + novel adjuvant Bogazici University SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit S subunit intranasal liposomal formulation
with GLA/3M052 adjs.
University of Virginia SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit S-Protein (Subunit) + Adjuvant, E coli based
Expression
Helix Biogen Consult, Ogbomoso & Trinity Immonoefficient Laboratory,
Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit S,N,M&S1 protein National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit University of San Martin and CONICET, Argentina SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit RBD protein fused with Fc of IgG + Adj. Chulalongkorn University/GPO, Thailand SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Capsid-like Particle AdaptVac (PREVENT-nCoV consortium) SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Drosophila S2 insect cell expression system
VLPs
ExpreS2ion SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Peptide antigens formulated in LNP IMV Inc SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit S protein WRAIR/USAMRIID SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit S protein +Adjuvant National Institute of Infectious Disease, Japan/Shionogi/UMN Pharma SARS-CoV2 Influenza
Protein Subunit VLP-recombinant protein + Adjuvant Osaka University/ BIKEN/  National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation,
Japan
SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit microneedle arrays S1 subunit Univ. of Pittsburgh SARS-CoV2 MERS
Protein Subunit Peptide Vaxil Bio SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Adjuvanted protein subunit (RBD) Biological E Ltd SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Peptide Flow Pharma Inc SARS-CoV2 Ebola, Marburg, HIV, Zika, Influenza, HPV therapeutic vaccine, BreastCA
vaccine
Protein Subunit S protein AJ Vaccines SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Ii-Key peptide Generex/EpiVax SARS-CoV2 Influenza, HIV, SARS-CoV
Protein Subunit S protein EpiVax/Univ. of Georgia SARS-CoV2 H7N9
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit EPV-CoV-19 EpiVax SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit gp-96 backbone Heat Biologics/Univ. Of Miami SARS-CoV2 NSCLC, HIV, malaria, Zika
Protein Subunit Subunit vaccine FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit S1 or RBD protein Baylor College of Medicine SARS-CoV2 SARS
Protein Subunit Subunit protein, plant produced iBio/CC-Pharming SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant protein, nanoparticles (based
on S-protein and other epitopes)
Saint-Petersburg scientific research institute of vaccines and serums SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit COVID-19 XWG-03
truncated S (spike) proteins
Innovax/Xiamen Univ./GSK SARS-CoV2 HPV
Protein Subunit Adjuvanted microsphere peptide VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Synthetic Long Peptide Vaccine candidate for
S and M proteins
OncoGen SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Oral  E. coli-based protein expression system
of S and N proteins
MIGAL Galilee Research Institute SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Nanoparticle vaccine LakePharma, Inc. SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Plant-based subunit
(RBD-Fc + Adjuvant)
Baiya Phytopharm/ Chula Vaccine Research Center SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit OMV-based vaccine Quadram Institute Biosciences SARS-CoV2 Flu A, plague
Protein Subunit OMV-based vaccine BiOMViS Srl/Univ. of Trento SARS-CoV2  
Protein subunit structurally modified spherical particles of
the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
Lomonosov Moscow State University SARS-CoV2 rubella, rotavirus
Protein Subunit Spike-based University of Alberta SARS-CoV2 Hepatitis C
Protein Subunit Recombinant S1-Fc fusion protein AnyGo Technology SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant protein Yisheng Biopharma SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein in IC-BEVS Vabiotech SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Orally delivered, heat stable subunit Applied Biotechnology Institute, Inc. SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Peptides derived from Spike protein Axon Neuroscience SE SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit MOGAM Institute for Biomedical Research, GC Pharma SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit RBD-based Neovii/Tel Aviv University SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Outer Membrane Vesicle (OMV)-subunit Intravacc/Epivax SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Outer Membrane Vesicle(OMV)-peptide Intravacc/Epivax SARS-CoV2  
Protein Subunit Spike-based (epitope screening) ImmunoPrecise/LiteVax BV SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Bacteria Vector Oral Salmonella enteritidis (3934Vac) based
protein expression system of RBD
Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC) / Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)
SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector YF17D Vector KU Leuven SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector Measles Vector Cadila Healthcare Limited SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector Measles Vector FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector Measles Virus (S, N targets) DZIF – German Center for Infection Research/CanVirex AG SARS-CoV2 Zika, H7N9, CHIKV
Replicating Viral Vector Horsepox vector expressing S protein Tonix Pharma/Southern Research SARS-CoV2 Smallpox, monkeypox
Replicating Viral Vector Live viral vectored vaccine based on attenuated influenza virus backbone (intranasal) BiOCAD and IEM SARS-CoV2 Influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Recombinant vaccine based on Influenza A virus, for the prevention of COVID-19 (intranasal) FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2 Influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Attenuated Influenza expressing
an antigenic portion of the Spike protein
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz and Instituto Buntantan SARS-CoV2 Influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Influenza vector expressing RBD University of Hong Kong SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector Replication-competent VSV chimeric virus
technology (VSVΔG) delivering the SARS-CoV- 2 Spike (S) glycoprotein.
IAVI/Merck SARS-CoV2 Ebola, Marburg, Lassa
Replicating Viral Vector Replicating VSV vector-based DC-targeting University of Manitoba SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector VSV-S University of Western Ontario SARS-CoV2 HIV, MERS
Replicating Viral Vector VSV-S Aurobindo SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector VSV vector FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector VSV-S Israel Institute for Biological Research/Weizmann Institute of Science SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector M2-deficient single replication (M2SR)
influenza vector
UW–Madison/FluGen/Bharat Biotech SARS-CoV2 influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Newcastle disease virus vector (NDV-SARS-
CoV-2/Spike)
Intravacc/ Wageningen Bioveterinary Research/Utrecht Univ. SARS-CoV2  
Replicating Viral Vector Avian paramyxovirus vector (APMV) The Lancaster University, UK SARS-CoV2  
RNA saRNA formulated in a NLC Infectious Disease Research Institute/ Amyris, Inc. SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding S Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces SARS-CoV2  
RNA Self-amplifying RNA Gennova SARS-CoV2  
RNA mRNA Selcuk University SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-mRNA Translate Bio/Sanofi Pasteur SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-mRNA CanSino Biologics/Precision NanoSystems SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA  cocktail encoding
VLP
Fudan University/ Shanghai JiaoTong University/RNACure Biopharma SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding RBD Fudan University/ Shanghai JiaoTong University/RNACure Biopharma SARS-CoV2  
RNA Replicating Defective SARS-CoV-2 derived
RNAs
Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA University of Tokyo/ Daiichi-Sankyo SARS-CoV2 MERS
RNA Liposome-encapsulated mRNA BIOCAD SARS-CoV2  
RNA Several mRNA candidates RNAimmune, Inc. SARS-CoV2  
RNA mRNA FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2  
RNA mRNA China CDC/Tongji University/Stermina SARS-CoV2  
RNA LNP-mRNA Chula Vaccine Research Center/University of Pennsylvania SARS-CoV2  
RNA mRNA in an intranasal delivery system eTheRNA SARS-CoV2  
RNA mRNA Greenlight Biosciences SARS-CoV2  
RNA mRNA IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Spain SARS-CoV2  
T-cell based CD8 T cell peptide targeting (S, M, N) and
(NSPs) SARS-CoV-2 proteins
OSE immunotherapeutics SARS-CoV2  
VLP VLP Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems SARS-CoV2  
VLP Virus-like particle-based Dendritic Cell(DC)-
targeting vaccine
University of Manitoba SARS-CoV2  
VLP VLP Bezmialem Vakif University SARS-CoV2  
VLP VLP Middle East Technical University SARS-CoV2  
VLP Enveloped Virus-Like Particle (eVLP) VBI Vaccines Inc. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, &
MERS-CoV
CMV, GBM, Zika
VLP S protein integrated in HIV VLPs IrsiCaixa AIDS Research/IRTA-CReSA/Barcelona Supercomputing
Centre/Grifols
SARS-CoV2  
VLP VLP + Adjuvant Mahidol University/ The Government Pharmaceutical Organization
(GPO)/Siriraj Hospital
SARS-CoV2  
VLP Virus-like particles,  lentivirus and
baculovirus vehicles
Navarrabiomed, Oncoimmunology group SARS-CoV2  
VLP Virus-like particle, based on RBD displayed
on virus-like particles
Saiba GmbH SARS-CoV2  
VLP ADDomerTM multiepitope display Imophoron Ltd and Bristol University’s Max Planck Centre SARS-CoV2  
VLP Unknown Doherty Institute SARS-CoV2  
VLP VLP OSIVAX SARS-CoV1
SARS-CoV2
 
VLP eVLP ARTES Biotechnology SARS-CoV2 malaria
VLP VLPs peptides/whole virus Univ. of Sao Paulo SARS-CoV2  

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